Pecan Carya illinoinensis

Pecan - Carya illinoinensis
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The symmetrical pecan makes a fine ornamental and nut tree. Needs moist, well-drained loamy soil. Grows 70' to 100', 55' spread. Grown from seed. (Plant two trees for pollination) (zones 6-9)

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Zones 6 - 9 Zones 6 - 9
Hardiness Zones 6 - 9
The Pecan can be expected to grow in the zones shown in color in the zone map. View Map
Nut Tree Nut Tree
Type of tree
Nut Trees
70' - 100' High 70' - 100' High
Mature Height
The Pecan grows to be 70' - 100' feet in height.
40' - 75' Spread 40' - 75' Spread
Mature Spread
The Pecan has a spread of about 40' - 75' at full maturity.
Medium Growth Medium Growth
Growth Rate
This tree grows at a medium growth rate. More about this.
Full Sun Full Sun
This Pecan does well in full sun.
Various Soils Various Soils
The Pecan grows in acidic, alkaline, loamy, moist, rich, sandy, silty loam, well drained, wet, wide range, clay soils.
Oval Shape Oval Shape
This Pecan has oval, rounded shape.

A tree for all uses, the pecan tree is the nation's most important commercial nut producer. The nuts are sweet and nutritious. It is also a shade tree, and the hard and beautiful wood is prized for furniture, flooring, and many other uses. It is the largest of the hickory genus, Carya, and offers a longevity of 300 years or more. These specific Pecan tree seedlings are grown from seed; mostly 'Elliot' or without a specific cultivar.


Open grown pecan trees have massive trunks and oval or rounded wide spreading crowns of branches that extend far down the trunk. Forest trees have a straight trunk and compact, pyramidal crowns. It bears within 6-10 years of planting. The crops of sweet nuts are abundant and contine regardless of age. It is difficult to transplant because of the long taproot it develops. (Plant multiple trees to ensure pollination) (zones 5-9)

Wildlife Value

The nuts are favored by squirrels, deer, raccoons, foxes, wild turkeys, wood ducks, crows, blue jays, and several other bird species.


Pinnately compound, alternate, variable, 12"-20" long, odd number of leaflets usually 9-17, 4"-8" long, slightly toothed margins, lustrous, dark green surface.

Flower Color

Female is yellow or greenish yellow and male is green or yellow.

Bloom Time

early to late depending upon the variety

Fruit Description

Thin, 4-angled husks in clusters of 3-6 turn from yellow green to brown as they ripen. They enclose a 1 1/2"-2" long, hard, oblong, light brown to reddish brown shell with a pointed tip and rounded base. The kernel is sweet. Harvest anytime after the husks opens, but is is easier to wait until the husks are wide open and the nuts are partially dry. Pecan trees grown from seed will begin to produce nuts after about 10 years.